After the Second World War, the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration offered six penicillin factories to European countries. The program stalled soon, however, because the United States imposed an embargo on deliveries of certain pieces of equipment needed to put the plants into operation. The paper discusses how engineers and scientists in Eastern Europe dealt with such difficulties and eventually launched the production of penicillin.
A presentation at the seminar of Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine, The University of Manchester, UK. 26 September 2012, 2-3pm.